My research topic is focusing on the role of the temperance movement in Dublin society around the early 1900s and specifically how it adds to our understanding of Mrs. Sinico’s death in ‘A Painful Case’. There was a strong belief that alcoholism was a disease and that any affected person is deserving of the punishment that follows, calling the disease a ‘national shame’. Many nationalists looked to the Catholic temperance movement, believing that in order to successfully gain Irish independence, sobriety was crucial. The movement also called for medical workers to protect those children whose parents were intemperate and to cure the parents and cleanse the home. In ‘A Painful Case’, Mrs. Sinico ultimately becomes intemperate and it leads to her death. The final blame was put on no one, but I think there is definitely some role of society that contributed to her continued use of alcohol and resulting isolation. The stigma surrounding alcoholism adds an additional layer of painfulness to her death and reflects the complete lack of understanding and support from those around her.